India-Info title

home contact search menu
Follow on
Snippets of Information

* 19 Dec 2022
Ramayana - Different versions
In Sanskrit
Adhyātma Rāmāyana (4200 verses) - 14th century, considered to be a part of the Brahmānda Purāna, also considered by some scholars as an independent work of an unknown author, cast in the form of a dialogue between Shiva and Pārvatī
Ānanda Rāmāyana (12,000 verses), also called Manohara-Ānanda- Rāmāyana in the form of a dialogue, first between Pārvatī and Siva and later between Rāmadāsa and his disciple Viṣṇudāsa. This work also is assigned to the 14th century or even a later date.
Adbhuta Rāmāyana (1355 verses), Yogavāsistha Rāmāyana (32,000 verses), Tattva- sańgraha Rāmāyana and Sańgraha Rāmāyana

In Other Indian languages
Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasīdās (in Hindi) - 16th century
Rāmāyana of Kamba (in Tamil) - 12th century
Kambar wrote this epic with the patronage of ThiruvennaiNallur Sadayappa Vallal, a Pannai kula chieftain. In gratitude to his patron, Kamban references his name once in every 1,000 verses.
Ramāyana of Kṛttivāsa (in Bengali) - 15th century by Bengali poet Krittibas Ojha.
Rāmacaritam and the Kannassa Rāmāyanam of Ceramān and Kannassa (in Malayalam) - 14th century
Rāmāvatār of Guru Gobind Singh (in Punjabi): Chaubis Avtar, a collection of twenty-four legendary tales of twenty-four incarnations of the god Visnu, forms a part of Bachitra Natak, in Guru Gobind Singh`s Dasam Granth. The complete work contains a total of 4,371 verse units of which 3,356 are accounted for by Ramavtar and Krishnavtar.
Rańganātha Rāmāyana (in Telugu) - adaptation of the Valmiki Ramayana in Telugu, a Dravidian language, written by the poet Ranganatha, also known as Gona Budda Reddy, between 1300 and 1310 A.D. This Ramayana was composed in 17,290 couplets (in Dwipada metre).
Rāmacaritra of Girdhar (in Gujarāti)
Saptakānda Rāmāyana of Sarala Dās (in Oriya) - 15th-century, written by Sarala Das in Odia, describing the fight between Rama and Ravana (1000 headed).
Rāmāyana of Mādhava Kandali (in Assamese) - the four kandas of ramayana viz ayodhaya, aranya, kiskindhya and sundara kandas.
Torave Rāmāyana of Narahari (in Kannada)

In other countries
Rāmāyana Kakawin (Javanese)
Hikayat Seri Rāma (Malaysian)
Rāmakien (Thai)
Pha Lak Pha Lam (Laos)
Khvay Thuaraphi Hobutsushu (Japanese)
Rāmāśvamedha (Nepali)
Jānakiharana (Sinhalese)

* 19 Dec 2022
The famous 'Lakshman rekha' is not mentioned at all in the works of Tulsidas, Valmiki, Kamban and Ezhuthachan. Kritibhasa Ojha in Oriya and the Bengali Ramayana speak of the 'Lakshman rekha' while Ranganath Reddy's 13th century epic refers to seven 'rekhas'!
Source:  Tracking the Ramayanas, Research scholar T. Shankar finds satisfaction in exploring the magic of the evergreen epic by Pushpa Chari, The Hindu, 13 Dec 2012

* 19 Dec 2022
The prevailing social conditions had a significant bearing on the telling of the epic at various points in time. In the 17th century, when Tulsidas wrote ‘Ram Charit Manas’ and Eknath composed ‘Bhavartha Ramayana,’ Hindu-Muslim tension prevailed in the region. In the social context, Bhavartha Ramayana refers to the plight of widows particularly Kausalya. Maula’s 15th century Telugu epic questions Brahmins about their treatment of other castes. The socio-economic scenario is reflected in many of the Ramayanas. Kamban who wrote at the peak of the Chola glory, speaks of great prosperity and a well clothed and bejewelled populace.
Composed in the 3rd century AD, the Jain Ramayana claims that Hindus have maligned Ravana. Sita, according to the Jain epic, is Ravana’s daughter and it was not Rama but Lakshmana who killed him.
Source:  Tracking the Ramayanas, Research scholar T. Shankar finds satisfaction in exploring the magic of the evergreen epic by Pushpa Chari, The Hindu, 13 Dec 2012

* Jul 2021
Janaka (Janakar)
Sita's father was popularly known as Janaka, but according to the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Janakas were a race of kings who ruled Videha Kingdom from their capital Mithila. Sita's father was named Seeradwaja Janaka.

* Jul 2021
A character in the Hindu epic Ramayana - He was Rama's brother, the second of the four sons of king Dhasharatha who ruled over Ayodhya.
When he was forced to govern Ayodhya, he did his duty, not as a ruler, but only as Rama's representative. He placed Rama's sandals at the foot of the throne, and refused to be crowned.
Koodalmanikyam Temple in Irinjalakuda, Kerala is dedicated to the worship of Bharata (Lord Sangameshwara).
The temple is one of four in Kerala that form a set called Nalambalam, with each temple dedicated to one of the four brothers in the Ramayana epic: Rama, Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna.

* Jul 2021
The history of Kosala prior to the birth of Rama reveals that Dasaratha had a daughter. The Vasishtha Ramayana, also known as Jnana Ramayana, which is one version of the Ramayana written by Valmiki, in its Adi Parva refers to the ancestry of Dasaratha, his birth and how he became a king in the solar dynasty. This reveals an unknown story in the known purana about Dasaratha's youth, marriage and how he became the father of a female child. Adhbuta Ramayana and Adyatma Ramayana also refer to this subject.

Dasaratha married Kausalya who was found in an unconscious state in a box floating in the Ganga. Kausalya gave birth to a female child, who unfortunately had a handicap in her leg. The child was named Shantai. Vashistha said the handicap was due to the marriage between close cousins (Dasaratha and Kausalya belonged to the same gotra) and she would become normal if given in adoption to a divine couple. Accordingly, Dasaratha and Kausalya gave the child in adoption to Romapada, the king of Angadesa. With due care and treatment, Shantai's disability vanished. Romapada performed her marriage with Rishyasringa Maharishi. It was after Shantai was given in adoption that Dasaratha got married to Sumitra and Kaikeyi.
Reference: Did Rama have a sister? by Dr.T.S.Narayana Swamy, Tattvaloka, December 2006