|Snippets of Information |
Folk / Regional / Tribal / Ritual / Martial dances
* 27 Oct 2022
Bhoota Kola or Bhootha Aradhane or devil worship prevalent
in the coastal towns of Karnataka in small local communities in rural
parts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts. Idols representing
'bhoothas' are taken out in a procession to the beating of drums and
bursting of firecrackers. As the procession ends, the idols are placed
on a pedestal. With a sword and jingling bells, a dancer whirls round in
imitation of the devil he represents. Frantically pacing up and down,
he enters into a possessed state and acts as an oracle. Bhootada Kola
is performed by a trained person who is believed to have temporarily
become a god himself. The performer displays an aggressive outlook,
dances fiercely and performs multiple rituals. This performer is feared
and respected in the community and is believed to give answers to
people’s problems on behalf of the god. Drums and music give company to
the dancing and pooja rituals. By praying together during Bhootada Kola,
the community seeks God’s blessing, prosperity and riddance of various
problems the community is challenged with.
Panjurli, Bobbarya, Pilipoota, Kalkuda, Kalburti, Pilichamundi, Koti Chennaya are some of the popular gods (Bhootas) worshipped as part of Bhootada Kola.
Bhootada Kola is said to have some influence from Yakshagana, a more
popular and widely performed folk dance in coastal Karnataka. Some of
the Bhootada Kola rituals also involve walking on a bed of hot coal.
* 27 Oct 2022
The Bhūta worship of South Canara is of four kinds, kōla, bandi, nēma, and agelu-tambila:
Kōla: Demi god dancing, is offered to the Bhūtas in the sthana of the village believed to be where they are supposed to reside.
Bandi: Bandi is the same as kōla, with the addition of dragging about a
chariot, on which the one who is representing the Bhūta is seated; most
often, he is from the nalke, pambada or ajala communities.
Nēma: Nēma is a private ceremony in honour of the Bhūtas, held in the
house of anyone who is so inclined. It is performed once in every year,
two, ten, fifteen, or twenty years by well-to-do families.
Agelu-tambila: is a kind of worship offered only to the family people,
wherein rice, dishes, meat, alcohol are served on plantain leaves and
offered to spirits, deities, departed forefathers annually or once
wishes are completed.
In kōlas and nēmas family and village disputes are referred to the spirit for mediation and adjudication.
* 21 May 2022
Ghumura is a folk dance and a legacy of the district of Kalahandi.
is a traditional festival celebrated by the people of Kalahandi
District, Odisha. The annual journey symbolises Maa Manikeswari ’s
return from Jenakhal to the main temple. During the festival, a tribal
dance is performed to please Maa Manikeswari, which is known as the Ghumura
dance. It is a dance performed with the traditional Ghumura Veer
Badya instrument. The dancers tie the Ghumura (badya / instrument) on
their shoulders and hang it tightly on their chests. Then there are
groups playing Ghanta and others playing traditional instruments like
‘dhola’ and ‘nishan’ to demonstrate the rich heritage of the region,
among others. Earlier, only one musical instrument from the royal family
named ‘Dum Baza’ accompanied the procession of the deity.
* 9 Jan 2022
Khukuri is a small knife that symbolizes victory. It generally has
carved wooden handles with sharp blades. Khukuri is a very important
part of Gurkha culture. Gurkhas display their triumph using a khukuri.
It is a sign of robustness and power. Khukuri was designed for the
warriors who won the battles and saved the pride of Gorkhas.
Khukuri Naach is performed by Gurkhas. In this folk dance,
Khukuri is used as a prop. This knife is the soul of Khukuri Naach. The
dancers perform various tricks using the Khukuri while dancing on the
Khukuri dance not only symbolizes courage, but it also demands courage.
Only the bravest are entrusted with a khukuri. It is not easy to balance
Khukuri while following the beats and elegantly moving your feet. Since
Khukuri dance includes the use of a dangerous knife, the movements are
restricted. The dancers stand in their fixed position throughout the
performance and use their legs to match the beat.
Source: Khukuri Dance - Gurkha Folk Dance by Navya Agrawal, auchitya.com
* 2 Jan 2022
Mudiyettu is a ritual dance drama from Kerala based on the mythological
tale of a battle between the goddess Kali and the demon Darika. It is a
community ritual in which the entire village participates. After the
summer crops have been harvested, the villagers reach the temple in the
early morning on an appointed day. Mudiyettu performers purify
themselves through fasting and prayer, then draw a huge image of goddess
Kali, called as kalam, on the temple floor with coloured powders,
wherein the spirit of the goddess is invoked. This prepares the ground
for the lively enactment to follow, in which the divine sage Narada
importunes Shiva to contain the demon Darika, who is immune to defeat by
mortals. Shiva instead commands that Darika will die at the hand of the
goddess Kali. Mudiyettu is performed annually in ‘Bhagavati Kavus’, the
temples of the goddess, in different villages along the rivers
Chalakkudy Puzha, Periyar and Moovattupuzha. Mutual cooperation and
collective participation of each caste in the ritual instils and
strengthens common identity and mutual bonding in the community.
Responsibility for its transmission lies with the elders and senior
performers, who engage the younger generation as apprentices during the
course of the performance. Mudiyettu serves as an important cultural
site for transmission of traditional values, ethics, moral codes and
aesthetic norms of the community to the next generation, thereby
ensuring its continuity and relevance in present times.
After Koodiyattam, the oldest Sanskrit theatre tradition, Mudiyettu is
the second Kerala art form being included in the UN list of the
Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Mudiyettu is a ritual performance that involves rituals, music, dance,
and theater. Evolved at Kali temples on the shores of rivers, it is
connected with the worship of the Mother Goddess in central Travancore. A
village festival celebrating rich harvest, Mudiyettu is a thanks
offering to Mother Nature. It traces its origin to the days of
Parasuraman, the legendary founder of Kerala. The caste known as Kuruppu
is the custodian of this ritual art. Hence it cannot claim tribal
origin. However, Dravidian aspects are there which show a merger of two
populations, the ethnic and the settlers.
Today Mudiyettu is carried on as annual festivals associated with
certain temples. The ritual art has three stages: kalam varkkal, drawing
of the stylized figure of Bhagavathy on the floor; Kalam pooja, ritual
adorations and Kalam maikkal, the performance part.
Mudiyettu is a stylized drama, the roots from which Koodiyattam, the
world famous Sanskrit drama, must have sprung. The costume and the
masque remind one of Kathakali. The dialogue spoken is a mixture of
poetry, prose and nonsensical sounds in old Malayalam, the roots from
which the spicy Chakyar Koothu must have sprung.
It has the sophistication of drama divided into seven scenes that move
from Kailasam (the abode of Lord Siva, to Asura Lokam (home of demons),
and from Earth to Paathalam, the lowest of the three worlds in Indian
Source: Mudiyettu by Padma Jayaraj, narthaki.com, December 7, 2010
* 2 Jan 2022
dance of ancestor worhip is a ritual art form of Kolathunadu (Kingdom
Cannanore) among the communities like Vannan, Malayan, Mavilan, Velan,
Munnoottan, Anjunnoottan, Pulayar, Kopalar performed from the month of
Thulam (October/November) upto June.
The performer actually assumes the role of the hero or God and the
viewers actually worhip the performer seeking his blessings. The
accompanying instruments are Chenda, Veekan Chenda (Veekkuchenda),
Ilathalam (Elathalam), Kuzhal (Kurumkuzal). In the first part
Vellattam or Thottam, the performer gives a sort of introduction without
the make up. Depending on the character played, the performer
dons different flamboyant costumes, majestic headgear and paints his
face accordingly with natural colours extracted from Chayilyam,
Karimazhi, Aripodi and Maniyola.
There are over 400 separate Theyyams, each with their own music, style
and choreography. The most prominent among these are Raktha Chamundi,
Kari Chamundi, Muchilottu Bhagavathi, Wayanadu Kulaven, Gulikan and
From December to April, there are Theyyam performances in
many temples of Kannur and Kasaragod. Karivalloor, Nileswaram,
Kurumathoor, Cherukunnu, Ezhom and Kunnathoorpadi in North Malabar are
places where Theyyams are performed annually (Kaliyattam) and draw huge
* 5 Nov 2021
Also spelt differentnly as Pili Yesha, Pili Vesa, Pili Vesha, Huli vesha.
Pili Yesa or Tiger dance is a traditional folk dance of the Tulu regions
of Karnatka and Kerala, that originated in Udipi,
Karnataka. It is traditionally performed during Janmashtami
(Krishna Jayanthi), Dusshera (Dasara) during the Goddess Sharada
procession, Ganesh Chaturthi, both as a religious offering to the Gods
and also as a ritual performance.
Pili vesha means Tiger form or in tiger costume. Pili in Tulu
means a tiger. Young boys and men wear a brief costume with a tail
and paint their bodies as a tiger, leopard or cheetah. Sometimes a
tiger mask is also worn. They mainly perform during the Sharada
procession but also give short performances on street sides to collect
the contributions made by the public who gather to view the performance.