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Folk / Regional / Tribal / Ritual / Martial dances

* 25 Jan2023
Folk Dances of Kashmir
Folk dances of Kashmir - Pinterest collection
 Bacha Nagma
Performed only by boys during the harvesting season and weddings. A boy takes on the role of females  and performs Hafiza style dance.  It is also known as Bachha Gyavaun which means young harmonious voice.
Bhand Jashan
This soothing dance with very light music is performed in traditional style by ten to fifteen dancers.
Bhand Pather
A form of Theatre dance that includes dance along with plays between dancers.
Dumhal Dance
This is one of the most famous dance forms practiced in Kashmir. Dancers are dressed up in vibrant colored robes and conical caps studded with beads. Only males of Wattal can perform this dance and that too during special occasion in a special ritual manner in which the men dance around a banner planted in the ground singing a melodious chorus accompanied by drums.
Hafiza Dance
A form of Kashmiri traditional dance performed at weddings. Santoor, a special instrument that contains almost hundred strings and played with the help of sticks is used.
Kud Dance
This dance is performed to honor the gods ‘Lok Devtas’ as a thanks giving ritual mostly in the night. Young and old participate equally to the accompaniment of rhythm and beats of special musical instruments such as Chhaina, Drums, Narsingha and flute. The farmers and villagers thank the local deity ‘Gramdevta’ for protecting their cattle, maize crops, children and family from all sorts of natural calamities.
Rouf Dance
This dance form is practiced on festive occasions like Eid and Ramzan days by a group of women standing face to face. The most notable feature is the footwork of the dancers - pronounced as ‘ruf’ or ‘row’. It is also performed to celebrate the onset of spring season.
Performed at weddings when the bride is about to leave her parental home. Kashmiri Pundit females gather and dance around bridal rangoli.

* 25 Jan 2023
Rauf dance celebrates the arrival of spring by gathering together and dancing. Women attired in salwar kameez with embroidered pherans with beautiful headscarves called kasaab or daejj adorn themselves with traditional silver jewels and form two chains of dancers facing each other. With the typical Kashmiri lyric playing in the background, they start swinging forward and backward gracefully, spreading the joy of the season. There is magic in their footwork and torso movement. The two rows interact while dancing and enjoy the rhythm of the composition. A joyous spirit is created as they welcome spring. Rauf dance is a sort of thanksgiving to nature. It's a musical gesture of gratitude for bringing the happiness of spring to the valleys of Kashmir. Rouf dance is simple. Its beat beckons you to dance in abandon. In the case of stage performances, traditional instruments such as Rabab are played in the background.
Source: Amrit Yuva Kalotsav in Jammu by Tapati Chowdhurie,, 25 Jan 2023

* 27 Oct 2022
Bhoota Kola - Pinterest collection
Bhoota Kola or Bhootha Aradhane or devil worship prevalent in the coastal towns of Karnataka in small local communities in rural parts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts. Idols representing 'bhoothas' are taken out in a procession to the beating of drums and bursting of firecrackers. As the procession ends, the idols are placed on a pedestal. With a sword and jingling bells, a dancer whirls round in imitation of the devil he represents. Frantically pacing up and down, he enters into a possessed state and acts as an oracle. Bhootada Kola is performed by a trained person who is believed to have temporarily become a god himself. The performer displays an aggressive outlook, dances fiercely and performs multiple rituals. This performer is feared and respected in the community and is believed to give answers to people’s problems on behalf of the god. Drums and music give company to the dancing and pooja rituals. By praying together during Bhootada Kola, the community seeks God’s blessing, prosperity and riddance of various problems the community is challenged with.
Panjurli, Bobbarya, Pilipoota, Kalkuda, Kalburti, Pilichamundi, Koti Chennaya are some of the popular gods (Bhootas) worshipped as part of Bhootada Kola.
Bhootada Kola is said to have some influence from Yakshagana, a more popular and widely performed folk dance in coastal Karnataka. Some of the Bhootada Kola rituals also involve walking on a bed of hot coal.

* 27 Oct 2022
The Bhūta worship of South Canara is of four kinds, kōla, bandi, nēma, and agelu-tambila:
Kōla: Demi god dancing, is offered to the Bhūtas in the sthana of the village believed to be where they are supposed to reside.
Bandi: Bandi is the same as kōla, with the addition of dragging about a chariot, on which the one who is representing the Bhūta is seated; most often, he is from the nalke, pambada or ajala communities.
Nēma: Nēma is a private ceremony in honour of the Bhūtas, held in the house of anyone who is so inclined. It is performed once in every year, two, ten, fifteen, or twenty years by well-to-do families.
Agelu-tambila: is a kind of worship offered only to the family people, wherein rice, dishes, meat, alcohol are served on plantain leaves and offered to spirits, deities, departed forefathers annually or once wishes are completed.
In kōlas and nēmas family and village disputes are referred to the spirit for mediation and adjudication.

* 21 May 2022
Ghumura is a folk dance and a legacy of the district of Kalahandi.
Chatar Jatra is a traditional festival celebrated by the people of Kalahandi District, Odisha. The annual journey symbolises Maa Manikeswari ’s return from Jenakhal to the main temple. During the festival, a tribal dance is performed to please Maa Manikeswari, which is known as the Ghumura dance.  It is a dance performed with the traditional Ghumura Veer Badya instrument. The dancers tie the Ghumura (badya / instrument) on their shoulders and hang it tightly on their chests. Then there are groups playing Ghanta and others playing traditional instruments like ‘dhola’ and ‘nishan’ to demonstrate the rich heritage of the region, among others. Earlier, only one musical instrument from the royal family named ‘Dum Baza’ accompanied the procession of the deity.

* 9 Jan 2022
Khukuri Naach - Pinterest collection
Khukuri is a small knife that symbolizes victory. It generally has carved wooden handles with sharp blades. Khukuri is a very important part of Gurkha culture. Gurkhas display their triumph using a khukuri. It is a sign of robustness and power. Khukuri was designed for the warriors who won the battles and saved the pride of Gorkhas.

Khukuri Naach is performed by Gurkhas. In this folk dance, Khukuri is used as a prop. This knife is the soul of Khukuri Naach. The dancers perform various tricks using the Khukuri while dancing on the beats.
Khukuri dance not only symbolizes courage, but it also demands courage. Only the bravest are entrusted with a khukuri. It is not easy to balance Khukuri while following the beats and elegantly moving your feet. Since Khukuri dance includes the use of a dangerous knife, the movements are restricted. The dancers stand in their fixed position throughout the performance and use their legs to match the beat.
Source: Khukuri Dance - Gurkha Folk Dance by Navya Agrawal,

* 2 Jan 2022
Mudiyettu - Pinterest collection
Mudiyettu is a ritual dance drama from Kerala based on the mythological tale of a battle between the goddess Kali and the demon Darika. It is a community ritual in which the entire village participates. After the summer crops have been harvested, the villagers reach the temple in the early morning on an appointed day. Mudiyettu performers purify themselves through fasting and prayer, then draw a huge image of goddess Kali, called as kalam, on the temple floor with coloured powders, wherein the spirit of the goddess is invoked. This prepares the ground for the lively enactment to follow, in which the divine sage Narada importunes Shiva to contain the demon Darika, who is immune to defeat by mortals. Shiva instead commands that Darika will die at the hand of the goddess Kali. Mudiyettu is performed annually in ‘Bhagavati Kavus’, the temples of the goddess, in different villages along the rivers Chalakkudy Puzha, Periyar and Moovattupuzha. Mutual cooperation and collective participation of each caste in the ritual instils and strengthens common identity and mutual bonding in the community. Responsibility for its transmission lies with the elders and senior performers, who engage the younger generation as apprentices during the course of the performance. Mudiyettu serves as an important cultural site for transmission of traditional values, ethics, moral codes and aesthetic norms of the community to the next generation, thereby ensuring its continuity and relevance in present times.

After Koodiyattam, the oldest Sanskrit theatre tradition, Mudiyettu is the second Kerala art form being included in the UN list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Mudiyettu is a ritual performance that involves rituals, music, dance, and theater. Evolved at Kali temples on the shores of rivers, it is connected with the worship of the Mother Goddess in central Travancore. A village festival celebrating rich harvest, Mudiyettu is a thanks offering to Mother Nature. It traces its origin to the days of Parasuraman, the legendary founder of Kerala. The caste known as Kuruppu is the custodian of this ritual art. Hence it cannot claim tribal origin. However, Dravidian aspects are there which show a merger of two populations, the ethnic and the settlers.
Today Mudiyettu is carried on as annual festivals associated with certain temples. The ritual art has three stages: kalam varkkal, drawing of the stylized figure of Bhagavathy on the floor; Kalam pooja, ritual adorations and Kalam maikkal, the performance part.
Mudiyettu is a stylized drama, the roots from which Koodiyattam, the world famous Sanskrit drama, must have sprung. The costume and the masque remind one of Kathakali. The dialogue spoken is a mixture of poetry, prose and nonsensical sounds in old Malayalam, the roots from which the spicy Chakyar Koothu must have sprung.
It has the sophistication of drama divided into seven scenes that move from Kailasam (the abode of Lord Siva, to Asura Lokam (home of demons), and from Earth to Paathalam, the lowest of the three worlds in Indian imagination.
Source: Mudiyettu by Padma Jayaraj,, December 7, 2010

* 2 Jan 2022
Theyyam - Pinterest collection
Theyyam dance of ancestor worhip is a ritual art form of Kolathunadu (Kingdom of Cannanore) among the communities like Vannan, Malayan, Mavilan, Velan, Munnoottan, Anjunnoottan, Pulayar, Kopalar performed from the month of Thulam (October/November) upto June.
The performer actually assumes the role of the hero or God and the viewers actually worhip the performer seeking his blessings. The accompanying instruments are Chenda, Veekan Chenda (Veekkuchenda), Ilathalam (Elathalam), Kuzhal (Kurumkuzal).  In the first part Vellattam or Thottam, the performer gives a sort of introduction without the make up.  Depending on the character played, the performer dons different flamboyant costumes, majestic headgear and paints his face accordingly with natural colours extracted from Chayilyam, Karimazhi, Aripodi and Maniyola.
There are over 400 separate Theyyams, each with their own music, style and choreography. The most prominent among these are Raktha Chamundi, Kari Chamundi, Muchilottu Bhagavathi, Wayanadu Kulaven, Gulikan and Pottan.
From December to April, there are Theyyam performances in many temples of Kannur and Kasaragod. Karivalloor, Nileswaram, Kurumathoor, Cherukunnu, Ezhom and Kunnathoorpadi in North Malabar are places where Theyyams are performed annually (Kaliyattam) and draw huge crowds.

* 5 Nov 2021
Pili Yesa
Pili Yesa - Pinterest collection
Also spelt differentnly as Pili Yesha, Pili Vesa, Pili Vesha, Huli vesha.
Pili Yesa or Tiger dance is a traditional folk dance of the Tulu regions of Karnatka and Kerala, that originated  in Udipi, Karnataka.  It is traditionally performed during Janmashtami (Krishna Jayanthi), Dusshera (Dasara) during the Goddess Sharada procession, Ganesh Chaturthi, both as a religious offering to the Gods and also as a ritual performance.
Pili vesha means Tiger form or in tiger costume.  Pili in Tulu means a tiger.  Young boys and men wear a brief costume with a tail and paint their bodies as a tiger, leopard or cheetah.  Sometimes a tiger mask is also worn. They mainly perform during the Sharada procession but also give short performances on street sides to collect the contributions made by the public who gather to view the performance.