Snippets of information
Personalities - Carnatic Music Composers
*11 Oct 2021
Sri Narayana Teertha (Govinda Sastrulu) was born at Villathur, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.
Narayana Theerthar took up sanyasam after marraige. During his
travel to various temple sthalams, he reached Govindapuram to meet
Bodendra Swamigal, but when he arrived the Swamigal had already attained
mukthi. He was suffering from severe stomach ache but still continued
his visit to temples. At Nadukkavery, Lord Krishna appeared in his
dream and asked him to follow the animal that he sees on waking and he
will then be rid of his stomach ache. He woke up to see a white
pig (varaha in sanskrit) and began following the animal.
At the village Bhoopathirajapuram, the pig vanished into a temple and he
heard the divine voice stating that he will be free of his ache. The
village henceforth came to be known as "Varagur".
He composed the Krishna Leela Tarangini consisting of twelve cantos covering the life of Sri Krishna from his birth to marriage with Rukmini.
He wrote 15 books and composed two other operas, Parijatha Apaharanam
and Haribhakthi Sundarnavam. Some of them are available in Benares Hindu
University and at the Saraswathi Mahal in Tanjore.
Subhodinee - treatise (in Sanskrit) on Brahma Sutra Sankara BhAshyam;
VivaraNa Deepika (in Telugu), a treatise on PancheekaraNa vartika of SureswarAchArya;
ParijAtApaharaNam, the well known Yakshaganam in Telugu
Hari Bhakti SudhArNavam
ChaAndilya Bhakti Sutra vyAkyAnam
Sri Narayana Tirtha attained Mukti in the year 1745.
Sources: sruti.com / varagur.org
* 11 Oct 2021
Sarangadeva - Musicologist : (13th century)
Authored 'Sangita Ratnakara' the greatest work after Bharata's 'Natya
Sastra'. Hailed as "Nissanka", as he was supreme in knowledge of music.
'Sangita' as referring to music alone came to be used first by him. A
Jayadeva - Composer (1101-1173)
Author of the Song Celestial 'Gita Govindam' the first known composition
in India specifying raga & tala. Called 'The Indian Song of Songs',
it has inspired composers, dance choreographers & poets. The lady
gracious behind Jayadeva's success was the eminent Padmavati, his
spouse, who danced to his singing
Purandaradasa - Father of Carnatic Music System (1484-1564)
A pioneer in bhakthi cult & a brilliant, popular composer. His compositions inspired Tyagaraja & others
Kshetrajna - Poet of Divine Love (1610-1685)
His music & lyric share the honours equally & it is in padams,
Kshetrjna excelled. There is enchanting beauty & exquisite finesse
in his songs of dignified sringara. A great composer who excelled in
bringing out diverse emotions
Bhadrachala ramadasa - Composer (1620-1680)
Religious bent of mind from boyhood. Was Tahsildar at Bhadrachalam &
he rebuilt the temple of Rama. Was incarcerated at Golkonda. Divine
will got his release. Exquisite songs of Ramadasa are popular. He was
the 'Mulapurusha' of harikatha sampradaya
Tyagaraja - Fragrant gold of Carnatic Music (1767-1847)
The most popular of Carnatic Music Trinity. 'In devotion & religious
fervour, he is like Purandara & Ramadasa', in lyrical moods he
takes a leaf off Kshetrajna; in the language of Gods, he seems to beckon
his contemporary Dikshitar & Sastri; in dramatic composition, is
like Narayana Tirtha & Merattur Venkutaramana Bhagavathar. His
adherence to sampradaya is supreme
Muthuswami Dikshitar - Architect of Raga forms (1776-1835)
The compositions of Dikshitar are rich in raga bhava full of gamakas
& graces, beauty, majesty, mastery & wisdom. A magnificient
composer, vocalist & veena player, he was all serenity & poise.
One of the Carnatic Music Trinity
Syama Sastri - Tala Prastara (1762-1827)
One of the Carnatic Music Trinity, his songs are noted for tala
intricacies. 'The melodic form of his compositions are strikingly
original, unconventional & free.' Devi Kamakshi of Tanjore was his
Swathi Tirunal - Royal Composer (1813-1846)
Proficient in many languages with great talent in music, he was the
Maharaja of Tiruvancore, a great patron of arts. Lord Padmanabha of
Travancore was his Ishta Devata
Thiru Gnanasambandar - Divine Composer (6th century)
While yet a baby was suckled by Goddess. One of the four great Saivaite
Apostles. His divine musical hymns in Tamil are delightful & the
lyric is magnificient.
Thiru Navukkarasar (Appar) - Divine Composer (6th century)
One of the prime apostles of Lord Shiva. A life of fragrant devotion & service to humanity.
Sri Periyalwar (C.700-750)
Vishnuchitta, as Periyalwar was called before he was included in the
apostolic order, brought up Sri Andal full of love & affection but
had to part with her when the Lord took her as spouse.
Divine origin, glamorous life, spiritual union mark the verdant life of
Sri Andal who had left to posterity the enchanting songs called
"Thiruppavai" & "Nachiar Thirumozhi".
Thirumangai Azhwar (716-821/750-800)
'The effulgent lamp that shuts out darkness in mind', Thirumangai Azhwar
fulfills all the demands of modern fiction. He had covered the largest
number of temples among Vaishnavaite apostles with pilgrimage &
Sundaramurthy Nayanar - Divine Composer (8th century)
A romantic apostle of Lord Shiva, his musical hyms form part of Thevaram along with those of Gnanasambandar & Navukkarasar.
One of the main four Nayanars of Shiva. He exhorts all to 'Sing the
ecstatic joy of the Lord soaked in graceful raga; He shall bestow his
grace in return.'
Tallapaka Annamacharya - Architect of Devotional ecstacy (1408-1503)
Annamacharya family was a fountain of divine ecstacy which has dedicated
a whole range of poems of madhura bhakthi. 12,000 songs are engraved on
copper plates to ensure against ravages & insanity of nature &
man. Lord Venkateswara of the Seven Hills was his patron deity.
Arunagirinathar - Eminent Divine Poet (c.1450A.D.)
The finest flower among Tamil composers, devoted & dedicated. His
composition 'Thiruppugazh' in praise of the Lord 'is a vast ocean of
intricate time measures'. An unrivalled Master of Verse.
Muthu Thandavar - Fragrant Bhava exponent (16th century)
Depth of theme, felicity of presentation, simplicity of lyric underline
his romantic poems. Lord Nataraja was his destiny & patron. His
padams, the delight of dancers, are a mine of bhava, bhakthi & rasa.
Uthukkadu Venkatasubba Ayyar - Composer & Divine (1700-1765)
His love of Lord Krishna was unparalleled & his bhakthi for Muruga was non pareil. His songs are graceful & soulful.
Arunachala Kavirayar - Eminent Composer (6th century)
'Rama Nataka Kirtanas', a pioneering musical opera, enjoys simplicity of
chaste language, easy-pace, flowing presentation, mastery &
versatality. It was released at the temple of Sri Ranganatha, Srirangam
in 1771 A.D. His songs were set to tune by Sattanadapuram Venkatarama
Ayyar & Kodandarama Ayyar.
Goplalakrishna Bharati - Father of Tamil Music Renaissance (1811-1881)
Author of the pioneering socio-spiritual musical opera 'Nandanar',
Bharati led a unique life of excellence & mastery of spirit over
matter. Has covered the whole gamut of musical compositions. Lord
Nataraja, the Cosmic Dancer, was his Ishta Devata. He was an eminent
musical discourser too.
Source: Musings on Music by S.Rajam
To read more about the composers, visit indian-heritage.org